Poor ethics in publishing: guide for new scholars- article provided by Elsevier publisher’s editor Bert Blocken

Welcome to 2017!!📖📚. As the year commences with new resolutions to do our best, it is important that we assess whether we are giving our best in the most ethical way possible, in a way that will build our aspirations not destroy them.

Publishing is a long circuitous road particularly for new scholars

Many young and upcoming scholars cherish seeing their names on academic manuscripts. And yes, it is exciting as i remembet my first academic output! But is it somethi g you will be proud of in the next 5 years? Is it an output that will help build one into academia or discourage? 

The article below by one of the most reputable publishers in academic research should be every upcoming and/or yet aspiring scholar’s  manual- written by editor Bert Blocken. It is a great gift to entering the world of academic publishing, worth reading not once, not twice, not 10x but many times.




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Africa’s post-colonial jubilees & potential heritage offerings: Botswana & Lesotho 50th independence celebrations

The aim of this article is to provide a new way for audiences to interrogate the relevance of heritage management for our contemporary needs, and perhaps in future policies call for more robust engagements in the area of heritage management in southern African countries.

On 30th September Botswana celebrated its fifty years since independence rule. Shortly afterwards Lesotho on the 04th October celebrated its 5o years since post-colonial rule. The celebrations were mainly focused on achievements made over these years with a possibility of what could be the next steps towards a sustainable growth of the two countries. In villages people focused on fanfare surrounding their cultural activities, remembering, in a rather nostalgic way, their folklife and folklore activities, feasting on traditional food, as well as performing and dancing cultural tunes.

International heritage conventions and heritage relevance in post-colonial African states

Both Botswana and Lesotho have ratified the two most important conventions that assist nation states to manage cultural heritage in their countries. The popular convention among African states is the 1972 World Heritage Convention (ratified by Lesotho in 2003 and ratified by Botswana in 1998). This convention is responsible for the popularity of the world heritage brand that is now a global world phenomena. However, African countries are yet to know how to apply this convention for their country’s social and economic benefits because of various hiccups: Chief among them being that although the convention provides a brand, its origin and cultural context is more European than African since it was initially coined with visible monuments in mind, such as Greece’s Acropolis, England’s Stonehenges and Westminster Abbey’s,Germany’s Aachen Cathedral; Italy’s Colosseum; to mention a few. A later leaning went to sites of archaeological nature (archaeology also being a discipline that is somehow foreign to African context s of cultural preservation-i.e. no digging of ancestors etc) but also archaeology for colonial African meant a focus, by colonial scholars, on politically safe heritage sites such as South African’s Maropeng Cradle of Humankind, Koobi Fora Prehistoric sites. However, the post-colonial era in Africa is failing to dislodge more diverse heritages still, and a trend towards nature landscapes emanated from RSA which due to apartheid had to stick to the politically safe sites such as the The Kruger National Park.                                               Countries like Botswana and Lesotho, blindly bench-marking on RSA’s apartheid motivated choice of heritages, have gone on to also focus on prehistoric sites and nature labels in their utilization of the 1972 World Heritage Convention. This is evidenced by Lesotho’s listing of Maloti Drankensburg mountains. Although unlike the Okavango Delta the site is listed as mixed site (both natural and cultural), the narrative is purely on the natural aspects. The already acknowledged cultural aspect is expressed through the safe prehistoric archaeology alluded to above. The examples from Botswana of the two listings of Tsodilo World Heritage site (prehistoric) and the listing of Okavango Delta World Heritage site as a natural site despite its rich  well known cultural aspects that could have seen it listed as as mixed site (as permitted by the 1972 convention) exhibits the blind adoption of international conventions with very little application to country contexts, leading to jubilees with internationally recognised sites that are void of national communal identities. These  leanings toward safer political options that served other countries’s political agendas of monuments and political systems such as apartheid and colonial scholarship (not characteristic of countries like Lesotho and Botswana), has made it difficult for these countries to show any difference in terms of utilising their 50 years of indepence in bringing out their different and more relevant historical archaeologies in their localities. They are still celebrating 50 years with references to colonial help, rather than references to how they have moved away from the colonial heritage to their post-colonial narratives that could be shown by listing of sites that showcases their communities’s identities and their evolution into the present post-indepence era. A lot therefore still needs to be done as regards bringing international conventions to the relevance of the owners of the landscapes that are being colored with international brands. The hope is that the 100 years post-independence celebration will have different offerings on the site listing basket so that international visitors can be offered a more diverse menu when they come to African landscapes, at the same time African governments and communities making use of their cultural comparative advantage of diverse culture to strengthen their local economies. The arrival of the 2003 Convention on the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage after 31 years of international political consumption of cultural divergent cultural heritage offers some hope to African cultures recognition of their intangible cultures. However, the danger now is on separating the two conventions per site. The most practical approach for African would have been to automatically overlay intangible aspects of cultural heritage onto the likes of Tsodilo and Maloti but it is not working like that. Every convention for itself, hence the hiccup for expression of African landscapes in their entirety. African nation-states, being dependent on international conventions, still have a long way to go to benefit fully on ratifications of conventions such as the UNESCO’s 1972 and the 2003 afore-mentioned. For a more robust listing and discussion of the various cultural related conventions, read chapter 2 of my book as it discusses the nuances surrounding international convention adoption and African heritage management in the present.The book can be found at the following site: http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783319320151

Harnessing heritage towards BOTS60 and LESOTHO 60

For both Botswana and Lesotho, the countries have rich natural resources that are nevertheless conflated with a rich historical heritage. We could be seeing a booming expression of all the country eras in deliberately crafted tourism museums that entice an international traveler the same way European landscapes do today. Too much blind following of foreign indicators of value assessments has long required that international conventions be adapted to African context where necessary, otherwise they continue to deny the diverse African heritages visibility in landscapes that are otherwise seen as archaeological or  natural. A country like Lesotho with massive water-bearing mountains has potential for a water theme park in its various towns and cities, complete with communal histories tied to the mountains all contained in bigger and better tourism museums for economic growth.


Fig 1:Botswana mine company, Debswana showcased one of its old trucks along a main road for travellers to view as a token show of Bot50 celebrations. The economy of Botswana being solely told through mining means a mining tourism of high value could long have been planned for to supplement the high-paying tourism offering taking place in Botswana

Botswana’s historical economic existence is based solely on its mining story, but this heritage is not expressed boldly anywhere near its very small museums. Mining museums of the size of the newly refurbished African American Museum in Washington DC, could be a common site in Botswana cities as well as open museums where these mines (full of folklore and folklife) are located. Debswana mine in Letlhakane, perhaps realising they had to be known somehow, opted for a big truck alongside one of the main roads, if anything to have a mark of some sort (see picture above). A much more structured expression of heritage that brings economic benefits exists, and countries such as Botswana and Lesotho still have a window of opportunity to tap onto this potential.



SYMPOSIUM CALL: 5th Symposium “Challenges for NGOs in the promotion of ICH values” – 5th ICH NGO Forum Symposium – Addis Ababa, Ethiopia – November 27, 2016

The safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is becoming a topic of focus in African cultural heritage management. This development is taking place through various mediums, some of the most exciting being through NGOs, rather than a full dependency on governments structures and departments. This is welcomed because intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is by form a people situated assets. One of the exciting symposium is coming up in Ethiopia, Africa, hosted by ICH-NGO forum. The information is as follows:

The themes for presentations may include:

• Application of ethical principles at national level for ensuring that ICH communities and groups are at the very center of all safeguarding efforts;
• The contribution (or not) of inventories in ICH safeguarding;
• The challenge of collecting data to understand the contribution of culture and ICH in the context of 17 objectives of the sustainable devlopment (UN);
• Professionalisation of traditional cultural skills and its impacts;
• Traditional knowledge and techniques as cultural assets for fostering employment, cultural industries, and the knowledge economy;
• Cultural tourism as an approach for inclusive economic development;
• Protection of rights on county of origin, tourism, intellectual property and geographical identity of cultural products and services;
• The role of the image in safeguarding using photography, video, and the internet: stereotypes vs promotion.

Send your proposal to ichngoforum@gmail.com
max. 300 words,
by October 15, 2016


CALL FOR PAPERS – ICH Symposium, Nov 27th 2016, Addis, Ethiopia


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Book chapter #9 – Conclusions: Sustainable Development and African Cultural Heritage Conservation and Management

Keitumetse forthcoming 2016_ISBN978-3-319-32015-1


Abstract:          When hidden in the dark corners of global scholarship and used sporadically at national and community levels, African cultural heritage resources become
illusive, non-traceable and at most irrelevant, a situation that makes them vulnerable.
This book brought out aspects of cultural heritage resources that give them a vantage point in conservation theory and practice. To achieve this, discussions of the diverse topics are anchored within a theme of sustainability. The book shows that sustainability in cultural heritage resources management is an aggregate of assessment of all the chapters in the book as follows: environment and historic environment, national and international legal framework, politics of the past, community-based conservation, cultural heritage interpretation, standard setting in cultural heritage (certification), cultural heritage tourism development and mainstreaming of human development aspects.


Sustainable development, Agenda 21 • African cultural heritage •
Environmental conservation • International conventions • Politics of the past •
Community heritage • Heritage interpretation • Heritage certification • Heritagetourism • Mainstreaming

9.2 Seeking a Vantage Point for Cultural Heritage: Divergent Themes and Coordinated Theory

The same characteristics that give the fi eld of cultural heritage management strength
by virtue of multidisciplinary and/or cross-disciplinary appear to be frustrating
efforts towards charting a conservation and management direction for the fi eld.
A scattered nature of the field across the disciplinary space gives it an appearance of
a lack of reference point in global scholarship. In modern resources use, it is evident
that components of cultural heritage resources are at times pulled in only when it
becomes convenient to use them in discourses of academia, socio-cultural interactions, socio-economic endeavours and international management, amongst others… These characteristics make the resources obscure and vulnerable to abuse because their application will only be illusive, non-traceable and at most irrelevant. -pg 204

About this chapter:


DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32017-5_9

Print ISBN: 978-3-319-32015-1

Online ISBN: 978-3-319-32017-5

Publisher: Springer International PublishingCopyright HolderSpringer International Publishing SwitzerlandAdditional Links


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*OPPORTUNITIES*: Fully-Funded Commonwealth Scholarships (Masters & PhD) in UK for Developing Countries 2017 Now Open

Funding towards cultural and heritage resources research, innovation, exchange is hard to come by in Africa. In order to tap into developments in this area scholars and practitioners may be better off taking indirect routes in order for them to upgrade their engagement qualifications in cultural and heritage conservation and management. Finding scholarships and exchanges that allow for activities including this area is one way of going about this process. Below is a link that provides a list of scholarships that cover various subjects that can lead to a career in cultural and heritage conservation.

Scholarship opportunities for African to study in the UK

It is important to note that subjects such as Archaeology and material conservation (on site or in in-housemuseums) cross cut to science-based disciplines and scholars who qualify can join disciplines such as chemistry, biology, geology as a way towards their conservation course of interest.

The following are more particular to the Arts under which cultural and heritage studies are more likely to be pursued:

  1. Commonwealth Academic Fellowships for Developing Countries 2017
  2. Commonwealth Split-site PhD Scholarship in UK for Developing Countries 2017
  3. Fully-Funded 1,500 Chevening Scholarships in UK for Developing Countries Now Open – 2017/2018
  4. Commonwealth Professional Fellowships for Developing Countries, 2017 UK

And many others listed in the link above.

All the best of luck!!



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Book Chpt. #8 -Mainstreaming African Cultural Resources: Heritage and Development

Figure 8.2_Traditional method of hide processing






ABSTRACT:        The chapters of this book have repeatedly demonstrated that management of cultural resources in Africa entails topics of environment, stakeholders,

management conventions, politics of the past in the present, community-based conservation, sustainable interpretation, standard setting and heritage enterprising. As
expected, such broad coverage commands multiple sectors and stakeholders in which cultural components should be integrated. Even though sectors and stakeholders
are endless, a theme of sustainability on which this volume is anchored on highlights the following sectors as core: local indigenous knowledge systems, youth-elder partnerships, technical education, modern land use planning, international conservation policies, standard setting mechanisms, social equity, tourism museums, funding and health and safety issues, amongst others that will result from the evolution of cultural resources use.

Although culture, cultural resources and at times cultural heritage can be found
in abundance within society, at societal level it is rarely conceived as a commodity
that can be managed in a formal manner characteristic of international conventions
and national policies, let alone within a systematic sustainable development framework.
It is up to cultural heritage experts and governments to facilitate cultural heritage
to feature strongly in development agendas.
In modern resources management, there are initiatives that societies can use to
translate cultural assets in their possession into development.  pg 185

KEYWORDS:  Adapt vs. adopt • Sustainable communities • Local indigenous knowledge
• Youth-elder • TVET • Land use planning • Social equity • Tourism museums
• Funding • Health and safety

Keitumetse forthcoming 2016_ISBN978-3-319-32015-1
Mainstreaming African Cultural Resources: Heritage and Development
Book Title
African Cultural Heritage Conservation and Management
Book Subtitle
Theory and Practice from Southern Africa
pp 181-202
Print ISBN
Online ISBN
Springer International Publishing
Additional Links

Chpt. #7 – Heritage enterprising: Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Tourism in Southern Africa


The so-called ‘Bushmen tourism’ as presented by other stakeholders about the San/Bushmen/Basarwa of southern Africa





Abstract:       Southern African tourism is dominated by natural resources that sustain safari tourism operated in the region’s national parks and game reserves. While this pattern of development brings a much needed income to governments in the region, it lacks other important characteristics such as social beneficiation and diversification of tourists’ experience. The use of cultural and heritage resources in southern African tourism provide potential to address these loopholes by broadening the scope of engagement and adding diversity to both the tourism product and the tourists’ experience. For this balance to be realised, several new ways of operating tourism have to be explored. They include diversification of natural resources management models to include approaches specifically tailored to conserve and attract cultural heritage resources use. For instance, the community-based natural resources management (CBNRM) programme has to be partnered with a community-based cultural heritage resources (COBACHREM ) model described in Chap. 4 of this book. In addition, juxtaposition of cultural heritage resources in nature reserve tourism interpretations can diversify tourism experiences. Furthermore, compilation of cultural resources in tourism gateway localities of natural value can enhance tourism value of localities that lie in periphery of nature reserves, thus reducing over-dependency on protected nature reserves as sole sources of tourism packages. In implementing the strategies, characteristics of tourism and their implications on cultural heritage have to be monitored to achieve sustainable use of cultural resources.

Keywords: Heritage tourism • Cultural tourism • Heritage industry • Nature tourism
• Community heritage • African villages • Tourism gateway localities
Keitumetse forthcoming 2016_ISBN978-3-319-32015-1
The book: chapter copy


Bibliographic Information

Book Title
African Cultural Heritage Conservation and Management
Book Subtitle
Theory and Practice from Southern Africa
Authors: Susan Osireditse Keitumetse
Copyright: 2016
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
Copyright Holder: Springer International Publishing Switzerland
eBook ISBN: 978-3-319-32017-5
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32017-5
Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-319-32015-1
Edition Number: 1
Number of Pages:XXX, 227
Number of Illustrations and Tables
3 b/w illustrations, 16 illustrations in colour
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