Chpt. #7 – Heritage enterprising: Cultural Heritage and Sustainable Tourism in Southern Africa


The so-called ‘Bushmen tourism’ as presented by other stakeholders about the San/Bushmen/Basarwa of southern Africa





Abstract:       Southern African tourism is dominated by natural resources that sustain safari tourism operated in the region’s national parks and game reserves. While this pattern of development brings a much needed income to governments in the region, it lacks other important characteristics such as social beneficiation and diversification of tourists’ experience. The use of cultural and heritage resources in southern African tourism provide potential to address these loopholes by broadening the scope of engagement and adding diversity to both the tourism product and the tourists’ experience. For this balance to be realised, several new ways of operating tourism have to be explored. They include diversification of natural resources management models to include approaches specifically tailored to conserve and attract cultural heritage resources use. For instance, the community-based natural resources management (CBNRM) programme has to be partnered with a community-based cultural heritage resources (COBACHREM ) model described in Chap. 4 of this book. In addition, juxtaposition of cultural heritage resources in nature reserve tourism interpretations can diversify tourism experiences. Furthermore, compilation of cultural resources in tourism gateway localities of natural value can enhance tourism value of localities that lie in periphery of nature reserves, thus reducing over-dependency on protected nature reserves as sole sources of tourism packages. In implementing the strategies, characteristics of tourism and their implications on cultural heritage have to be monitored to achieve sustainable use of cultural resources.

Keywords: Heritage tourism • Cultural tourism • Heritage industry • Nature tourism
• Community heritage • African villages • Tourism gateway localities
Keitumetse forthcoming 2016_ISBN978-3-319-32015-1
The book: chapter copy


Bibliographic Information

Book Title
African Cultural Heritage Conservation and Management
Book Subtitle
Theory and Practice from Southern Africa
Authors: Susan Osireditse Keitumetse
Copyright: 2016
Publisher: Springer International Publishing
Copyright Holder: Springer International Publishing Switzerland
eBook ISBN: 978-3-319-32017-5
DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-32017-5
Hardcover ISBN: 978-3-319-32015-1
Edition Number: 1
Number of Pages:XXX, 227
Number of Illustrations and Tables
3 b/w illustrations, 16 illustrations in colour


Dr Susan O. Keitumetse competed for and won two separate Commonwealth scholarships both to University of Cambridge, UK , where she pursued MPhil (Archaeological Heritage Management and Museums) and later on PhD (African cultural heritage and Sustainable Development). Before she had obtained a BA degree (Archaeology and Environmental Sciences) and Post Graduate Diploma in Education (Geography and History) from the University of Botswana. During her post-graduate studies, she combined both environmental science and archaeology disciplines to venture into the broader cultural and heritage management studies with a particular focus on sustainable development and cultural heritage management at the department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge. With a view to catalyze a linkage between environment and cultural heritage in Africa, Dr Keitumetse conducted various researches and published works that illustrate the relevance of cultural and heritage resources for the broader environmental conservation. She works at the University of Botswana’s Okavango Research Institute as a researcher in cultural heritage and tourism where she undertakes applied research in areas such as the Okavango inland Delta World Heritage Site and Kalahari areas. Of particular note is her developing conservation model of Community-Based Cultural Heritage Resources Management (COBACHREM) to guide local communities and practitioners’ initiatives towards sustainable use of cultural heritage resources for social development. Dr Keitumetse is an associate editor of the journal Environment, Development, and Sustainability published by Springer. She also sits in the editorial board of the international journal of community archaeology and heritage, published by Taylor and Francis, as well as the International Journal of Heritage and Sustainable Development published by Green Lines Institute, Portugal. Dr Keitumetse has both national and international experience from across the world. She has won academic grants for research fellowships in international institutions that include; the Rockefeller Fellowship at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA; the Watson Scholar Fellowship at Brown University in Rhode Island, USA and the Wenner-Gren Foundation research grant for research on ‘historical archaeology of marginal landscapes of eastern Botswana’. Outside academia and in international development Dr Keitumetse has worked and continues to work with institutions such as UNESCO as an expert advisor, examiner, facilitator, and consultant within the intangible cultural heritage section. She has corporate governance experience from African government parastatal institution dealing with environment, heritage, tourism and land use planning. These are derived from her tenure as a board director of Botswana Tourism Organisation for six years, where she also chaired a quality assurance committee of the board dealing with grading and certifying tourism accommodation. Her overall research interests are in the areas of sustainable development and cultural heritage conservation; historical archaeology; community heritage management; communal cultural identities; heritage tourism; heritage and protected areas; international management of cultural heritage; amongst others. Dr Susan Keitumetse has published extensively in the field of cultural heritage conservation and management in Africa, Her works comprise of peer-reviewed articles in international journals; peer-reviewed book chapters; refereed conference proceedings; and technical reports in international periodicals, magazines and newspapers. These can be accessed through search engines such as Google Scholar and LinkedIn. *********************************************************************************************
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