Chapter #6 – Grading and Certification : Implications for Cultural Heritage Management


Figure 6-2_Botswana eco-certification logo showing visual exhibits of performance levels

Some of the existing resource management certification models

Image©Botswana Tourism Organisation

 ABSTRACT: Anecdotal mention of cultural resources in already established natural resources grading and certifi cation systems exists, in particular within the broader ecotourism model. In the absence of certifi cation standards for cultural heritage management fi eld, this chapter explores how certifi cation initiatives that already

exist can be used as a springboard to inspire similar initiatives in cultural heritage
management. In this chapter the broader ecotourism model is identifi ed as a framework
for discussion. The most dominant use of natural resources in African landscapes
is tourism, and as such most grading and certifi cation programmes are
modelled around tourism use. Resources use in tourism involves a broad range of
stakeholders that are both local (host) and international (tourists). Tourism also uses
a wide range of resources by type, spanning from landscapes to animals to features.
The same is also true for cultural and heritage resources use, whereby as stated in
Chap. 1 , economic use value of cultural resources is heightening, though without
any conservation strategy. To provide a platform for theoretical and practical discussions
on ways to initiate certifi cation processes for cultural heritage resources, a
case study of the Botswana tourism establishment’s grading and Botswana ecocertifi
cation systems is discussed in the context of cultural heritage. The analysis
indicates that whereas some sectors incorporate cultural resources use in their managementportfolios, this is done in an unsustainable manner, even where these
resources are incorporated in a certifi cation model such as the popular ecotourism
framework. In ecotourism cultural resources are addressed as if they are natural
resources, with incompatible indicators of conservation applied on them.
Certifi cation initiatives that recognise uniqueness of cultural heritage resources or
those initiatives that focus solely on cultural resources are needed.

Keywords:    Standard setting framework / Grading / Certifi cation / Cultural
resources / Cultural indicators / Heritage certification / Natural resources / Cult-certified initiative

In the absence of certifi cation standards for cultural heritage resources conservation,
this chapter discusses what exists and from the discussions deduces how that
can inspire similar initiatives in the fi eld of cultural heritage management.
Alternatively the discussion will illuminate on how that which already exists can be
enhanced to cater for specifi c conservation needs of cultural and heritage resources
(e.g. Tables 6.1 , 6.2 , 6.3 and 6.4 ) (Sect. 6.5 ). This only serves to provide a point of
departure from which certifi cation initiatives for the relatively new fi eld of cultural
heritage management can be embarked on. Chapter 4 ’s formulation of a communitybased cultural heritage resources management (COBACHREM) model represents a preliminary effort towards development of clear-cut models for cultural and heritage management that can become certifi ed as time goes on. – pg 136

Book: African Cultural Heritage Conservation and Management: Theory and Practice from Southern Africa



Dr Susan O. Keitumetse competed for and won two separate Commonwealth scholarships both to University of Cambridge, UK , where she pursued MPhil (Archaeological Heritage Management and Museums) and later on PhD (African cultural heritage and Sustainable Development). Before she had obtained a BA degree (Archaeology and Environmental Sciences) and Post Graduate Diploma in Education (Geography and History) from the University of Botswana. During her post-graduate studies, she combined both environmental science and archaeology disciplines to venture into the broader cultural and heritage management studies with a particular focus on sustainable development and cultural heritage management at the department of Archaeology, University of Cambridge. With a view to catalyze a linkage between environment and cultural heritage in Africa, Dr Keitumetse conducted various researches and published works that illustrate the relevance of cultural and heritage resources for the broader environmental conservation. She works at the University of Botswana’s Okavango Research Institute as a researcher in cultural heritage and tourism where she undertakes applied research in areas such as the Okavango inland Delta World Heritage Site and Kalahari areas. Of particular note is her developing conservation model of Community-Based Cultural Heritage Resources Management (COBACHREM) to guide local communities and practitioners’ initiatives towards sustainable use of cultural heritage resources for social development. Dr Keitumetse is an associate editor of the journal Environment, Development, and Sustainability published by Springer. She also sits in the editorial board of the international journal of community archaeology and heritage, published by Taylor and Francis, as well as the International Journal of Heritage and Sustainable Development published by Green Lines Institute, Portugal. Dr Keitumetse has both national and international experience from across the world. She has won academic grants for research fellowships in international institutions that include; the Rockefeller Fellowship at the Smithsonian Institution, Washington DC, USA; the Watson Scholar Fellowship at Brown University in Rhode Island, USA and the Wenner-Gren Foundation research grant for research on ‘historical archaeology of marginal landscapes of eastern Botswana’. Outside academia and in international development Dr Keitumetse has worked and continues to work with institutions such as UNESCO as an expert advisor, examiner, facilitator, and consultant within the intangible cultural heritage section. She has corporate governance experience from African government parastatal institution dealing with environment, heritage, tourism and land use planning. These are derived from her tenure as a board director of Botswana Tourism Organisation for six years, where she also chaired a quality assurance committee of the board dealing with grading and certifying tourism accommodation. Her overall research interests are in the areas of sustainable development and cultural heritage conservation; historical archaeology; community heritage management; communal cultural identities; heritage tourism; heritage and protected areas; international management of cultural heritage; amongst others. Dr Susan Keitumetse has published extensively in the field of cultural heritage conservation and management in Africa, Her works comprise of peer-reviewed articles in international journals; peer-reviewed book chapters; refereed conference proceedings; and technical reports in international periodicals, magazines and newspapers. These can be accessed through search engines such as Google Scholar and LinkedIn. *********************************************************************************************
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