Image©Botswana Tourism Organisation
ABSTRACT: Anecdotal mention of cultural resources in already established natural resources grading and certifi cation systems exists, in particular within the broader ecotourism model. In the absence of certifi cation standards for cultural heritage management fi eld, this chapter explores how certifi cation initiatives that already
exist can be used as a springboard to inspire similar initiatives in cultural heritage
management. In this chapter the broader ecotourism model is identifi ed as a framework
for discussion. The most dominant use of natural resources in African landscapes
is tourism, and as such most grading and certifi cation programmes are
modelled around tourism use. Resources use in tourism involves a broad range of
stakeholders that are both local (host) and international (tourists). Tourism also uses
a wide range of resources by type, spanning from landscapes to animals to features.
The same is also true for cultural and heritage resources use, whereby as stated in
Chap. 1 , economic use value of cultural resources is heightening, though without
any conservation strategy. To provide a platform for theoretical and practical discussions
on ways to initiate certifi cation processes for cultural heritage resources, a
case study of the Botswana tourism establishment’s grading and Botswana ecocertifi
cation systems is discussed in the context of cultural heritage. The analysis
indicates that whereas some sectors incorporate cultural resources use in their managementportfolios, this is done in an unsustainable manner, even where these
resources are incorporated in a certifi cation model such as the popular ecotourism
framework. In ecotourism cultural resources are addressed as if they are natural
resources, with incompatible indicators of conservation applied on them.
Certifi cation initiatives that recognise uniqueness of cultural heritage resources or
those initiatives that focus solely on cultural resources are needed.
Keywords: Standard setting framework / Grading / Certifi cation / Cultural
resources / Cultural indicators / Heritage certification / Natural resources / Cult-certified initiative
In the absence of certifi cation standards for cultural heritage resources conservation,
this chapter discusses what exists and from the discussions deduces how that
can inspire similar initiatives in the fi eld of cultural heritage management.
Alternatively the discussion will illuminate on how that which already exists can be
enhanced to cater for specifi c conservation needs of cultural and heritage resources
(e.g. Tables 6.1 , 6.2 , 6.3 and 6.4 ) (Sect. 6.5 ). This only serves to provide a point of
departure from which certifi cation initiatives for the relatively new fi eld of cultural
heritage management can be embarked on. Chapter 4 ’s formulation of a communitybased cultural heritage resources management (COBACHREM) model represents a preliminary effort towards development of clear-cut models for cultural and heritage management that can become certifi ed as time goes on. – pg 136